Four Views of the Citadel: The Consequential Distinction between Secularity and Secularism


religion, secularism, secularity, fundamentalism, religious freedom, laicite, pluralism

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In this article I want to suggest that there is an important, perhaps critical distinction between secularity and secularism -- in particlular, that one concept is a fundamental component of liberal pluralism and a bastion against religious extremism, and that the other is a misguided, even dangerous, ideology that may degenerate into its own dystopian fundamentalism. As a means of advancing this suggestion, I propose to view the distinction between secularity and secularism from four vantage points, each of which I will call a view of the citadel.


6 Religion and Hum. Rts.: An Int’l J.

Publication Title

Religion and Human Rights.: An International Journal

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